This course provides an introduction to the study of the human experience in the modern world. It brings together the history of major milestones in the modern era, from the mid-18th century to the 21st century, and prominent theoretical frameworks that are employed to analyze this transformative period in the history of our species. SPS 102 is designed to be a follow-up of SPS 101 and thus compliments the content and the academic skills that were previously introduced. There are three central aims of this course. The first aim is to present our students the challenges and potential in the scientific study of human experience through the introduction of various analytical tools from disciplines such as history, sociology, anthropology and economics. The second aim is to provide the intellectual foundations that would help our students to understand the dynamics of the contemporary world around them by historicizing its relatively recent formation in the history of humanity. Finally, this course also aims to emphasize the structured use of language, in this case English, for the purposes of knowledge production and critical analysis. It accepts the role of language in humanities and social sciences as important as calculus is for physics. To that end, it pays special attention to critical reading and writing as evident from the course structure.